Solidago – European Goldenrod (Solidaginis virgaureae herba)

Latin name of the genus: Solidago
Latin name of herbal substance: Solidaginis virgaureae herba
Botanical name of plant: Solidago virgaurea l.
English common name of herbal substance: European goldenrod

Latin name of the genus: Solidago
Latin name of herbal substance: Solidaginis virgaureae herba
Botanical name of plant: Solidago virgaurea L.
English common name of herbal substance: European Goldenrod

Solidago - European Goldenrod - Solidago virgaurea L.

ASSESSMENT REPORT

FOR HERBAL SUBSTANCE(S), HERBAL PREPARATION(S) OR COMBINATIONS

THEREOF WITH TRADITIONAL USE

Solidago virgaurea

L., herba

BASED ON ARTICLE 16D(1) AND ARTICLE 16F AND 16H OF DIRECTIVE 2001/83/EC AS

AMENDED

I.REGULATORY STATUS OVERVIEW1

MA: Marketing Authorisation;

TRAD: Traditional Use Registration;

Other TRAD: Other national Traditional systems of registration;

Other: If known, it should be specified or otherwise add ’Not Known’

1This regulatory overview is not legally binding and does not necessarily reflect the legal status of the products in the MSs concerned.

2Not mandatory field

II. Combination products. Average number of combination substances: 3-5 and >5.

1)Herbal tea – Filipendulae ulmariae herba, Salicis cortex, Violae tricoloris herba, Harpagophyti radix, Equiseti herba,

Solidaginis herba

, Callunae herba – on the market since 1999; for oral use; indications – as an adjuvant for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of locomotors apparatus (rheumatism, arthrosis, arthritis and gout), adjuvant therapy in flu like symptoms

2)Herbal tea – Epilobii herba, Bucco folium,

Solidaginis herba

, Calendulae flos cum calyce – on the market since 1999; for oral use; indication- for adjuvant therapy in case of micturition difficulties (e.g. associated with diagnosed benign prostate hyperplasia, prostatitis, inflammations of the urinary tract; special warning: not recommended for patients with chronic renal diseases, regular medical supervision is required!

3)Herbal tea – Uvae ursi folium, Equiseti herba, Myrtilli herba, Matricariae flos, Sambuci nigrae flos,

Solidaginis herba

, Thymi herba; – on the market since 1989, for oral use; indications – as an adjuvant therapy in acute and chronic infections and inflammations of the urinary tract.

II.

ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR HERBAL SUBSTANCE(S), HERBAL PREPARATION(S) OR COMBINATIONS THEREOF WITH WELL- ESTABLISHED USE AND/OR TRADITIONAL USE

II.1 INTRODUCTION

Solidago virgaurea L. (synonyms: Amphiraphis leiocarpa, Amphiraphis pubescens, Dectis decurrens, Doria virgaurea, European golden rod) belongs to the family of Asteraceae (Compositae). The herbal substance consists of the dried, flowering parts of the plant (Solidaginis virgaureae herba, British Herbal Pharmacopoeia 1976; ESCOP Monographs 2003; Bader 1994; 1999; 2006; Goldenrod. http://www.Herbalgram.org; Hoppe 1975; PDR for Herbal Medicines 2000; Pharmeuropa 2001; http://www.pharmakobotanik.de/systematik/6droge-f/solida-v.htm; Pharmacopée Francaise 1989; Verga D’Oro 2001).

Solidago has been used for treatment of different diseases in Europe since medieval times (Arnold from Villanova (1240-1311), Lonicerus 1564; Hieronimus Bock 1565 and Tabernaemontanus (1530- 1590). Its diuretic activity is mentioned in “Thesaurus pharmacologicus” Schroeder’s, 1669 (Bader 1999); in Madaus “Lehrbuch der Biologischen Heilmittel” (1938) and in Mayer Monograph of Solidago Virga aurea L. (Mayer and Mayer 1950).

European goldenrod contains miscellaneous flavonoids (1.5%) (quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides, astragalin and rutoside) and antocyanidins, derivatives of cyanidin. Other constituents include triterpene saponins of the oleanane type (up to 2%), the bisdesmosidic phenol glycosides leiocarposide (0.08-0.48%) and virgaureoside A, diterpenoid lactones of the cis-clerodane type, phenolic acids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (0.2-0.4%), ferulic acid, synapic and vanillin acids) and small amount of essential oil (cadinene, α and β pinene, myrcene, limonene, sabinene and germacren D) (Bader 1999; Bornschein 1987; ESCOP Monograph 2003; Fötsch and Pfeifer 1989; Fötsch et al. 1989; Gerlach 1972; Goswami et al. 1984; Hiller et al. 1975; Hiller and Gil Rjong 1980; Hiller and Fötsch 1986; Hiller et al. 1991; Inose et al. 1991, 1992; Jiang et al. 2006; Kalemba 1998; Knütter and Pohloudek-Fabini1969; Lück 2001 edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/lueck-lorna-2001-08- 03/HTML/lueck-bib.html; Poetsch 1999; Prosser at al. 2002; Radoias et al 2004; Schilcher 1964, 1965). The polyphenolic compounds and terpenoids from Solidago virgaurea L. are presented in Table 1 according to Wittig and Veit (1999).

II.3 PHARMACOLOGY

The pharmacological and clinical effects of Solidago virgaurea has been described in several reviews (Bader 1999; Hiller and Bader 1996; Laszig et al. 1999, Melzig 2004, Schilcher 1987; Schilcher 1999, Schmitt 1996; Weiss 1980; Yarnell 2002).

A synergic action of several components of the Solidago virgaurea L. is proposed. Therefore, the herbal substance or herbal preparations from Solidago must be considered as the active ingredient.

Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins from Solidago virgaurea L. was tested in experimental oedema model in rats. Pletysmographic estimation showed significant reduction of the volume of the oedema after iv administration of 1.25mg – 2.5 mg/kg of triterpene saponin complex (Jacker et al. 1981).

Terpene fraction or its derivatives were shown to present antiulcer activity. Such activity was described for a labdane diterpene from Solidago chilensis in HCl/ethanol induced gastric lesions in mice (Schmeda-Hirschmann et al. 2002).

In experiment on rats the combined preparation of Solidago virgaurea, Fraxinus excelsior and Populus tremula (Phytodolor®) was tested for an anti-inflammatory, analgetic and antipyretic activity. Activity was similar to that of reference substances salicyl alcohol and indomethacin. Each of the individual extracts exhibited significant efficacy (Okpanyi et al. 1989).

Extracts of Solidago virgaurea (aqueous/alcoholic) were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenen induced oedema and in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Both extracts of Solidago as well as extracts of Populus tremula and Fraxinus excelsior (composition of Phytodolor® preparation) significantly reduced the carrageenen oedema and reduced the volume of the arthritic paw (El-Ghazaly et al. 1992).

Anti-inflammatory activity was also demonstrated with samples from Phytodolor® in in vitro experiments, where significant inhibition of expression of TNF-α and COX-2 activity was observed (Schaser et al. 2006).

Anti-inflammatory influence of Solidago virgaurea extract from fixed composition Phytodolor® on the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) liberated by activated granulocytes was estimated in in vitro experiments. Solidago extract did not inhibit myeloperoxidase activity at concentrations up to 1% (Von Kruedener et al. 1995; 1996).

Saponins, flavonoids and caffeic acid esters from Solidago virgaurea inhibited the activity of leukocyte elastase, a protease involved in the progression of inflammation. The ester saponins increased permeability of cells and stimulated the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids in the adrenal glands (Melzig et al. 2000).

Anti-inflammatory activity of leiocarposide was tested in rats with carrageenen oedema test (Table 2, Metzner et al. 1984).

Table 2. Anti-inflammatory activity of leiocarposide and phenylbutazone in rats (Metzner et al. 1984).

The pharmacological activity and toxicology of phytotherapeutic Ariven® composed of aqueous extract of Solidago virgaureae, extr. Oleandris, sparteine sulfate, pyridine-3-carbonic acid, pyridine-3- carbonic acid amide, vitamin B1 and vitamin B6. was estimated in several experiments testing antioedemic effects. The Solidago extract significantly inhibited the inflammatory skin reaction induced by X-ray radiation model in guinea pigs and examined with Trypan Blue method (Wagener 1966).

II.3.1.1.2 Antioxidant activity

Chlorogenic and caffeic acids have been reported to scavenge reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen (Kono et al. 1997).

Mixture of the ethanolic extracts (35% aqueous ethanol) from dried Solidago virgaurea, Potentilla anserina, Radix Rubiae tinctorum, Equisetum arvense, Oleum Juniperi and Petroselini sativi fructus was used in vitro to estimate glucose consumption by rabbit brain slices. Swelling of brain slices in vitro was significantly diminished with an increase of glucose consumption and the aerobic formation of lactic acid (Dittmann 1973).

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Solidago virgaurea (0.52 mg/ml of rutin, 0.64 mg/ml of flavonoids and ethanol 45.6% v/v) was tested in vitro as a component of the phytotherapeutic drug Phytodolor®. The activity of xanthine oxidase (XOD), diaphorase (NAD-dia-juglone), lipooxygenase (LOX) and the light activators, riboflavin and rose Bengal was studied. The results showed inhibition of production of reactive oxygen species in above mentioned reactions by Solidago virgaurea L. extract (Meyer and Elstner 1990; Meyer et al.; 1995).

Similar effects of Phytodolor® were described in another series of experiments (Germann et al. 2005).

II.3.1.1.3 Analgesic activity

Analgesic activity of leiocarposide was shown in experiments performed on mice in hot plate and withdrawal of a hind foot upon irradiation (the inhibition of a polysynaptic reflex) tests. This activity was compared with aminophenazone effects (Table 3, Metzner et al. 1984).

Table 3. Analgesic activity of leiocarposide and aminophenazone in mice (Metzner et al. 1984).

The analgesic potential of Solidago virgaurea was tested in vitro for affinity to three neuropeptide receptors involved in the mediation of acute pain in mammals: bradykinin, expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, neurokinin 1 expressed in astrocytoma cells and calcitonin gene related peptide. The Solidago methanolic extract of the seeds of the plant produced significant inhibition of radio- ligand binding for bradykinin receptors (Sampson et al. 2000).

II.3.1.1.4 Spasmolytic activity

In experiment performed in vitro on isolated smooth muscles of intestines of guinea pig Solidago virgaurea ethanolic extract induced spasmolytic activity in the range of 14.73% of papaverin (Westendorf and Vahlensieck, 1981).

Presence of flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) in Solidago virgaurea preparations may contribute to explain vascular smooth muscle relaxation. It can be concluded that vasodilatatory action depends on the inhibition of protein kinase C, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase or decrease of Ca2+ uptake (Rácz et al. 1980; Duarte et al. 1993).

In other experiments performed in vitro in acetylcholine pretreated urinary bladder of the rat the phytotherapeutic product Urol®) combined of Extr Rad. Rubiae tinct. Spir, Extr. Sem Ammeos visnagae spir., Extr. Herb. Solidago virgaureae spir., Extr. Rad. Taraxaci and aescin exhibited spasmolytic activity. This effect was mainly due to the ingredient Extr. Solidago virgaureaeWestendorf and Wahlensieck 1983).

Aqueous extract of leaves of Solidago virgaurea (aqueous extraction, evaporation of eluate to a spissum extract and dilution with water) inhibited muscarinic M2 and M3 receptor-mediated contraction of rat and human bladder muscle strips. Low extract concentrations (0.01%) appeared to

and antibacterial

result from non-competitive muscarinic receptor antagonism, whereas higher (0.1%) concentrations might have non-specific inhibitory effect. Relationship between in vitro concentrations and therapeutic doses remained unclear due to unknown bioavailability of the active ingredients of the extract (Borchert et al. 2004).

II.3.1.1.5 Antibacterial activity

Antibacterial activity of monovalent preparations (six extracts) and mixtures (ten preparations) of Solidago virgaurea were tested in vitro against urogenital bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis). Tested mixtures (Solidago virgaurea combined with Cortex Rhus aromaticae, Fol. Uvae ursi and Hb. Taraxaci) showed significantly stronger antibacterial activity than monovalent preparations. The results indicate that Solidago virgaurea extracts exhibited antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Moreover these extracts of

Solidago virgaurea demonstrated activity against a larger range of microbes than extracts of Solidago gigantea and Solidago canadensis (Brantner 1999).

Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Solidago virgaurea L. were tested in vitro by use of freeze-dried biomass from 4-week old callus cultures of the plant. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Solidago virgaurea estimated with the agar diffusion assay method showed a moderate activity and are presented in Table 4. (Thiem and Goślińska 2002).

Table 4. Antimicrobial activity (MBC) of extracts from plant and callus of Solidago virgaurea L. from in vitro cultures (Thiem and Goślińska 2002).

MBC – minimal bactericidal concentration (mg/ml); – no activity

Inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase activity, an enzyme modulating cytostatic

activity was found in in vitro experiments with water-soluble components of Phytodolor® phytotherapeutic composed of Fraxinus excelsior, Populus tremula and Solidago virgaurea. The

Solidago virgaurea ethanolic extract (rutin 0.52 mg/ml, flavonoids 0.64 mg/ml, ethanol 45.6% v/v,

(I50=0.013% v/v). However, the overall effect of the combination was more pronounced. The single component as the combined extracts exhibited activity in the range of effective NSAID’s (Strehl et al. 1995).

II.3.1.1.6 Antifungal activity

In the course of screening for new antifungal agents Bader et al. (1987) showed that deacylated triterpenoid saponins of Solidago virgaurea, isolated after mild alkaline hydrolysis of the mixture of genuine ester saponins, showed higher activity against several Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida pseudotropicalis, Candida guilliermondi, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans), than the mixture of ester saponins. These deacylated saponins (bisdesmosidic glycosides of polygalacic acid) virgaureasaponins 1, 2 and 3 (Bader et al. 1992) demonstrated higher antifungal activity than that of the corresponding prosapogenins (monodesmosides) (Bader et al 1990b).

In other experiments Pepeljnjak et al. (1998) showed antimycotic activity of Solidago virgaurea ethanolic extract against dermatophytes, especially against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis. Antifungal activity against Candida albicans was very low.

II.3.1.1.7 Anticancer activity

Significant tumour inhibitory action of Virgaurea saponin E (1 mg/kg/day) was found in vivo in mice in allogenic sarcoma-180 model and in syngenic sarcoma model (Bader et al. 1996; 1998b). In another series of experiments the antitumour effects of polysaccharides were demonstrated.

In an SCID mouse model antineoplastic activity of Solidago virgaurea on prostatic tumour cells was tested and cytotoxic activity on various tumour cell lines was demonstrated (human prostate, breast, melanoma and small lung carcinoma). The active fraction of the extract corresponding to a molecular weight of 40,000 (G-100) was administered i.p. or s.c. every 3 days for 25 days in experimental tumour model in mice. The growth of the tumours was inhibited at 5 mg/kg (Gross et al. 2002).

II.3.1.1.8 Immunobiological activity

Immunomodulatory (induction of macrophages and activation of NK-cells) and antitumour activity of triterpene saponins (Virgaurea saponin E1) were shown in in vitro experiments (Plohman et al. 1997, 1999).

Further chromatographic separation demonstrated the presence of five benzylbenzoates from the hexane soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea. By using in vitro mouse peritoneal macrophages two compounds (2-methoxybenzyl-2- hydroxybenzoate and benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate) exhibited stimulation macrophage

function (range of 1-100 μg/ml), suggesting potential use in the treatment of infectious diseases and tumours (Choi et al. 2005).

II.3.1.1.9 Diuretic activity

The diuretic properties of Solidago spp. are in prevalence based on studies performed on the European goldenrod (S. virgaurea L.). Leiocarposide (2’-hydroxybenzyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate 2’.4-diglucoside) was isolated for the first time from Solidago virgaurea var. Leiocarpa (Benth/Gray) (Hiller et al. 1979) and was found in Solidago virgaurea L (Chodera et al. 1985a, 1985b; Budzianowski 1999). Leiocarposide is completely absent in Solidago canadensis L. and Solidago gigantea Ait. Acute toxicity (LD50) of leiocarposide in rats was 1.55 g/kg. The compound was shown to exhibit diuretic activity in rats, only 75% lower than furosemide (Table 5, Chodera et al. 1985a). The action of leiocarposide was 30% higher after i.p. than per os administration. The diuretic action was delayed and started after 5 hours after administration and lasted up to 24 hours (Table 6, Chodera et al. 1985b).

The leiocarpic acid (3,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxybenzoic acid), part of the leiocarposide molecule, showed no diuretic activity at the dose 25 mg/kg i.p. (Budzianowski 1999).

Table 5. Diuretic activity of leiocarposide and furosemide in rats (Chodera et al. 1985a, b).

Table 6.Diuretic activity of leiocarposide after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (per os) administration (Chodera et al. 1985 b).

Table 7. Elimination of sodium, potassium and calcium ions in urine of the control, leiocarposide and furosemide treated rats (Chodera et al 1985b).

The flavonoid fraction of Solidago virgaurea L. administered to rats showed an increase of diuresis (88% after 24h). Decrease of an overnight excretion of potassium and sodium and increase of excretion of calcium ions was observed (Table 8, Chodera et al. 1991).

Table 8. Diuretic and saluretic activity of the flavonoid fractions of Solidago virgaurea (Chodera et al. 1991).

Interestingly, it was also demonstrated, that leiocarposide diuretic activity was reduced by the presence of flavonoids and saponins. In contrary, some researchers suggest that diuretic activity of goldenrod is exerted by the mixture of flavonoids and saponins, but the others demonstrated in animal studies relative inactivity of flavonoid mixture (Schilcher et al. 1989).

In experimentally induced renal calculi model in rats it was shown, that after 6 weeks of administration of leiocarposide (25 mg/kg) the growth of the renal calculi was significantly decreased (Chodera et al. 1988).

Significant increase of diuresis in rats together with an increased elimination of sodium, potassium and chloride ions was observed after oral administration of infusion of Solidago virgaurea (0.3% of flavonoids, 4.64 ml/kg and 10.0 ml/kg). The lower dose was more efficient (Schilcher and Rau 1988).

Acylated triterpenoid saponins (especially virgaureasaponin B) present in Solidago virgaurea could transiently change the cell membrane permeability and induced alterations in ionic homeostasis with enhanced permeability between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. These effects could be the result of the structural similarity of acyl groups with fatty acids as constituents of the biological membranes (Melzig et al. 2001).

Comparison of diuretic activity of different fractions of Solidago virgaurea extracts (methanol/water, 70:30) on Sprague Dawley rats (N=12–16 per experimental group) showed significant diuretic and saluretic activity of some fractions of the extract.

The hydroxycinnamic acid fraction (100 mg/kg p.os) significantly increased sodium and potassium excretion in urine. This activity did not differ from furosemide efficacy 10 mg/kg/. There was no influence on calcium ion excretion, both in hydroxycinnamic acid and furosemide groups.

The flavonoid fraction (100 mg/kg) did not elevate urine volume or ion secretion. The significant increase of urine volume and saluretic activity for sodium and potassium ions was demonstrated for the saponin fraction (25 mg/kg – 100 mg/kg). These effects were comparable to those of furosemide (10 mg/kg per os) (Kaspers et al. 1998).

Active flavonoides of Solidago virgaurea (especially quercetin) inhibit NEP and angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) activity (Schilcher and Rau 1988; Melzig et al. 2001a; Melzig and Major 2000; Table 9, Major 2001 http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/major-hedda).

Table 9. Influence of the methanol extracts of Solidago virgaurea and their fractions on activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (Major 2001, http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/dissertationen/major-hedda)

The mechanism of beneficial renal and cardiovascular activity of Solidago virgaurea can depend on modulation of neutral endopeptidase activity (NEP). By blocking the hydrolysis of the vasoactive peptides, Solidago treatment can regulate water and sodium balance and cardiovascular homeostasis by increasing water and sodium excretion and arterial and venous vasodilatation (Melzig and Major 2000).

Non-clinical data show diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and spasmolytic, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of Solidago virgaurea. However, as no single ingredient is responsible for these effects, the whole herbal preparation of Solidago inflorescences must be considered as the active ingredient.

II.3.3 Pharmacokinetics

A selection of several herbal medicinal products was analysed for their modulatory influence on expression of cytochrome P-450 enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and the transporter protein MDR1. The experiments were performed in vitro on cultures of LS180 cells. The Solidago virgaurea product Solidanin® (Bioforce, Roggwill, Switzerland) was resolved in DMSO and then diluted to final concentration of 100 μg/ml. Solidanin® solution did not influence CYP1A2 and MDR1 expression, however it induced 1.9±0.2 fold CYP3A4 genes. The activation of the nuclear receptor PXR is believed to be responsible for modulation CYP3A4 expression (Brandin et al. 2007).

There are no specific data on pharmacokinetics of Solidago virgaurea. However, some interactions are possible due to influence on CYP3A4 genes expression.

II.3.4 Toxicology

II.3.4.1 Cytotoxicity

Constituents of the aerial parts of the plant Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea used as stomachic and diuretic in Korea were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Six terpenoids and four phenolics were isolated from the hexane-soluble fraction of the total MeOH extract. Compounds: entgermacra-4(15),5,10,(14)-trien-1β-ol, β-dictyopterol and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid showed in vitro cytotoxicity against cultured lines of human tumour cells (A549-non small cell lung adenocarcinoma, SK-OV-3-ovarian, SK-MEL-2 – skin melanoma, XF498 – CNS and HCT15 –colon. The ED50 values ranged from 1.52-18.57 μg/ml (Table 10, Choi et al. 2004).

Table 10. Cytotoxic effects of Solidago virgaurea constituents (Choi et al. 2004).

EC50 values (concentration (μM) that caused 50% inhibition of cell growth in vitro.

Other investigations on the constituents Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea revealed isolation of three cytotoxic compounds: erythrodiol-3-acetate, α-tocopherol-quinone and trans-phytol from the hexane soluble fraction (Sung et al. 1999).

II.3.4.2

Acute Toxicity

No data available. Acute toxicity of the leiocarposide in rats was reported: LD50 (oral) as 1.55 g/kg b.w. (Chodera 1985a).

No information on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity is available.

No data are available on reproductive or developmental toxicity.

No relevant data are available on toxicology of Solidago virgaurea except of acute toxicity of leiocarposide. Because of the lack of data concerning mutagenicity and genotoxicity, the inclusion of Solidago virgaurea L. to the Community List cannot be considered.

In an open post marketing crossover study with placebo in 22 healthy patients (age 17 – 61 years), an ethanolic extract made from fresh plant Solidago virgaurea L. was tested. The patients received 100 (5×20) drops/day of the ethanolic extract (64 % V/V, Goldruten Tropfen®) for 2 days. In Solidago treated groups the significant increase of daily volume of urine (27%) was observed (p<0.01) (Klinisch-Experimentelle Studie Nr 23223. P 1. 1992).

In an open multicentre postmarketing study the ethanolic extract of Solidago virgaurea L. made from fresh plant (64 Vol%, Goldruten Tropfen®) was tested in 53 patients (45 female, 8 male, age: 6 – 83 years) with symptoms of urinary tract inflammation: dysuria, pollakisuria, tenesmus. The treatments lasted 1 year, but time of the treatment of individual patient differed, depending on the physician´s decision. The patients with renal stones, renal carcinoma, gonorrhoea, syphilis, AIDS and marked prostate hyperplasia were excluded, as patients with bacterial counts in urine over 104. Adult patients

received 100 drops (5×20) of Solidago extract. Patients younger than 12 years received 55 drops/day. After treatment in 65.4% treated patients the significant clinical improvement was observed with significant reduction of dysuria, pollakisuria and tenesmus (Klinisch-Experimentelle Studie Nr. 23223.P2. 1992).

The efficacy of the dry extract of Solidago virgaurea (5.4:1, Stromic®) was tested in an open multicentre study performed by 289 physicians in 745 female patients (age: 12-94 years) with dysuria of different origin. After 14 days of treatment with Solidago extract (three times 380 mg/day) in 69.2% patients micturition frequency was decreased as the other symptoms of cystitis (Schmitt 1996).

In the postmarketing study performed on 1487 patients with several urinary tract diseases (irritable bladder, urinary tract infections, renal calculi/gravel) the efficacy of an extract from Solidago virgaurea (5.0-7.1:1, ethanol 30% m/m) was estimated. Patients were treated in average for 4 weeks (Cystinol Long Kapseln®, 3×424.8 mg/day). Global improvement (in CGI scale) was evaluated by physicians and in 79% of patients reached significance (Laszig et al. 1999).

In an open multicentre (308 physicians) study performed on 1487 patients with chronic recurrent irritable bladder condition the subgroup of 512 patients (age: 13 – 96 years, 77% female) was treated for five weeks. The patients received Solidago virgaurea L. dry extract (5.0-7.1:1, 424.8 mg, 3x/day). In result, 96% of the patients treated showed improvement registered in CGI scale, and in 80.1% of patient´s estimation of effectiveness was good or very good. Side effects were not registered (Melzig et al. 2001b; Pfannkuch and Stammwitz 2002).

The case report of patients treated with Solidago virgaurea dry extract for 4 weeks after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy resulted with spasmolytic effects, and lack of additional spasmolytic treatment needed (Laszig et al. 1999).

An open outpatient study was performed in 20 patients with renal calculi/gravel (age: 7 – 60 years) to test therapeutical efficacy of phytomedicine Fitolizyna® (Solidago extract as one of the components) for 2 weeks – 3 months (1 teaspoon of paste, three times daily). Significant diuretic effect was noted in all tested patients with very good tolerance of treatment (Krzeski 1960).

In patients with different subtypes of rheumatic diseases the anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy of the fixed combination of Populus tremula, Solidago virgaurea and Fraxinus excelsior

(Phytodolor®) have shown a similar efficacy compared to NSAID treatment (Chrubasik and Pollak 2003; Ernst 2004; Jorken and Okpanyi 1996; Klein-Galczinsky 1999)

However, the relevant participation of Solidago virgaurea in clinical efficacy of composition products is not known.

Table 11. Presentation of the non–randomized open clinical studies with Solidago virgaurea products.

II.4.2.1 Clinical studies in special populations (e.g. elderly and children)

No relevant data available. No special studies for children and elderly were performed. The number of children included into studies is to small for further assessment. Products containing Solidago virgaurea L. cannot be recommended for use in children below the age of 12 years.

II.4.2.2 Assessor’s overall conclusions on clinical efficacy

Solidago virgaurea products were used in 5 non-controlled, non-randomized open trials. The number of participants varied between the trials from 22 to 1487. On the basis of published results of these clinical trials, the quality of the available studies cannot be evaluated. The protocols with sample calculation are missing. Statistical methods are not shown in all protocols, characteristics of the patients are incomplete, in most trials inclusion and exclusion criteria are not given and no comparators (control groups) included. There is no information about dropping out cases. No specific questionnaires on the quality of life are given. The relevance of non-clinical studies has not been confirmed by clinical trials.

Overall, in the presence of missing information, assessing and interpreting treatment effects of Solidago virgaurea can be limited only to traditional use.

II.4.3 Adverse events

Hypersensitivity reactions and mild gastrointestinal disorders (in 0.07%-0.3% patients tested) were the only adverse reactions registered in connection with Solidago virgaurea L. intake.

Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis due to Compositae species are requested to avoid contacts with Solidago virgaurea (De Jong et al. 1998; Lundh et al. 2006; Myers and Wohlmuth 2005; Schätzle et al. 1998, Stingeni et al. 1999, Zeller et al. 1985).

II.4.4 Interactions

No data available.

II.4.5 Assessor’s overall conclusions on clinical safety

No case reports on adverse reactions or other signals of safety concern in connection with Solidago virgaurea L., inflorescences were identified, except in patients allergic to Compositae species. As there is no information on reproductive and developmental toxicity the use during pregnancy and lactation cannot be recommended.

II.4.6 Use in pregnancy and lactation

No data available.

II.4.7 Overdose

No data available.

II.4.8 Effects on ability to drive or operate machinery

No data available.

II.4.9 Contraindications

Known hypersensitivity or allergy to Compositae (Asteraceae) or Solidago spp.

II.4.10 Overall conclusions on safety

As there is no information on reproductive and developmental toxicity the use during pregnancy and lactation cannot be recommended.

The traditional medicinal use of Solidago virgaurea L. has been documented within the Community. No specific clinical data of Solidago virgaurea L. adverse effects have been identified under normal conditions of use. Two post-marketing studies demonstrated good tolerability in 97 – 98% of patients (N=745 and 1487) treated for 2-4 weeks. Only one case of a minor adverse effect was noted (heartburn) (Schmitt 1996; Laszig et al. 1999).

As no data on use in children are available, products containing Solidago virgaurea L. cannot be recommended for use in children below the age of 12 years.

The traditional use of Solidago virgaurea L. is well documented. However, because of absence of sufficient clinical data, the quality of the available studies cannot be evaluated. The results of clinical trials cannot support a well-established indication of use.

Several non-clinical experiments indicate on diuretic, spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial effects of the Solidago virgaurea. However, the relevance of non-clinical studies has not been confirmed by clinical trials.

Although this phytotherapeutic treatment in urinary tract diseases is extremely popular, there is no detailed reasonable scientific explanation on effects and the exact mechanism of diuretic action.

No isolated compound which has been isolated from Solidago virgaurea is recognized as responsible for its diuretic action, thus the complex mixture of constituents contributed to this effect.

Indication of an increase of volume of urine, especially in cases of inflammation and renal calculi/gravel is well documented, both in monographs and textbooks, as in data regarding longstanding use.

The therapeutic dose is 3.0-5.0 g dried herbal substance for preparation of an infusion, equivalent to 0.5-2.0 ml of liquid extract or to 0.5-2.0 ml of tincture, 2-4 times daily.

There is almost no information on the toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicology. Therefore the use in pregnancy and lactation is not recommended.

The use in children under 12 years of age is not recommended, as no data are available on safety of treatment.

Products containing Solidago virgaurea L. are available in many Member States of the EU. Thus, the requirement of medicinal use for at least 30 years (15 years within the Community), Directive 2004/24/EC is fulfilled.

Because of lack of data concerning mutagenicity, the inclusion of Solidago virgaurea L., herba to the Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products cannot be considered.