Mullein Flower – Verbasci flos (Verbascum thapsus L.; V. densiflorum Bertol. (V. thapsiforme Schrad); V. phlomoides L.)

Latin name of the genus: Verbasci flos
Latin name of herbal substance: Verbascum thapsus l.; v. densiflorum bertol. (v. thapsiforme schrad); v. phlomoides l.
Botanical name of plant: Herbalref.com
English common name of herbal substance: Mullein flower

Latin name of the genus: Verbasci flos
Botanical name of plant: Verbascum thapsus L.; V. densiflorum Bertol. (V. thapsiforme Schrad); V. phlomoides L.
English common name of herbal substance: Mullein Flower

Verbasci-flos - Mullein Flower at herbalref.com

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1. Description of the herbal substance(s), herbal preparation(s) or combinations thereof

Herbal substance(s)

Mullein flower consists of the dried flowers, reduced to the corolla and the androecium, of Verbascum thapsus L., V. densiflorum Bertol. (V. thapsiforme Schrad), and V. phlomoides L. (Ph. Eur., ref.: 1853).

German pharmacopoeial grade mullein flower must have a swelling index of not less than 9 and it must not contain more than 5% calices and discoloured flowers (brown corollas) (Blumenthal, 2000). The Swiss pharmacopoeia requires a swelling index of not less than 12 (Blumenthal, 2000). The European Pharmacopoeia 9.4 includes a test for swelling index with minimum 9.

In this report, the common expression “mullein flower” refers to the flowers of Verbascum thapsus L., V. densiflorum Bertol. (V. thapsiforme Schrad), and V. phlomoides L. Unfortunally, in many references, specifications of which flower species they refer to, are not mentioned. V. thapsiforme Schrad. is broadly used as a synonym for V. densiflorum Bertol. in handbooks and scientific journals. According to Integrated Taxonomic Information System (Itis), V. thapsiforme taxonomic status as a synonym is not accepted. Based upon this, the synonym V. thapsiforme is replaced with V. densiflorum in this assessment report.

Herbal preparation(s) Comminuted herbal substance.

Combinations of herbal substance(s) and/or herbal preparation(s) including a description of vitamin(s) and/or mineral(s) as ingredients of traditional combination herbal medicinal products assessed, where applicable.

This assessment report includes data regarding monopreparations containing mullein flower and herbal preparations from this herbal substance. Literature regarding combination products is not part of the assessment.

Vitamin(s): Not applicable

Constituents:

monoterpene) in V. phlomoides flower, fixed oil in flowers of V. phlomoides (2.4%) and V. densiflorum

(1.6%), in which the main fatty acids are palmitic and linolenic acids; amino acids and free sugars in V. densiflorum flower; carotenoids and xanthophylls (Bradley 2006).

1.2. Search and assessment methodology

This report is based on a scientific review of the scientific and traditional literature referring to Verbascum thapsus L. The following electronic databases were searched in November 2016 and 2017 with these search terms:

Scientific databases: SciFinder

Verbascum thapsus: 6

Verbascum densiflorum: 3

Verbascum phlomoides: 71

Verbasci flos: 1 references

Mullein flower: 0

Verbascum thapsus flos: 0

Medical databases: The Cochrane Library

Verbascum thapsus: 6

Verbasci flos: 1 references

Mullein flower: 0

Verbascum thapsus flos: 0

PubMed:

Verbasci flos: 4 references

Verbascum thapsus: 163

Verbascum densiflorum: 6

Verbascum phlomoides: 163

Other resources: European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotheraphy. ESCOP Monograph. The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products. E/S/C/O/P Online Series, 2014: Verbasci Flos Mullein flower: 38 articles

Toxicological databases: Toxline

Verbascum thapsus: 6

Verbasci flos: 1 references

Mullein flower: 0

Verbascum thapsus flos: 0

Pharmacovigilance resources:

The World Health Organisation’s Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC): 1 case report

Search performed on 09.11.2016 for Verbascum thapsus, mullein and mullein extract (synonym for Verbascum spp.). An updated search was performed on 01.11.2017 for Verbascum densiflorum and

Verbascum phlomoides.

Data from EU and non-EU regulatory authorities: for information about products on the market in the EU/EEA Member States, see table 1 in section 2.1.1.

2. Data on medicinal use

2.1. Information about products on the market

2.1.1. Information about products on the market in the EU/EEA Member States

Information on medicinal products marketed in the EU/EEA

Table 1: Overview of data obtained from marketed medicinal products

If the symptoms persist longer than a week or in case of recurrent symptoms, a doctor should be consulted.

This overview is not exhaustive. It is provided for information only and reflects the situation at the time when it was established.

*Authorisation according to national law in Poland.

Information on relevant combination medicinal products marketed in the EU/EEA

Combination products containing mullein flower are and have been marketed in Europe historically as shown in the market overviews published in the first assessment of mullein flower. Belgium has had a tea with mullein leaves and flowers since 1964, Germany has had 10 combinations since 1978.

Combination products are available in Slovenia since 1993 and Denmark had a well-established combination product on the market between 1997-2000. Both Czech Republic and Slovakia have had combination products since 1969. This combination that was on the market both in Slovakia and in Czech Republic is an example:

Czech Republic

Species pectorals Planta

Herbal tea for oral use containing Plantaginis folium 23 g, Althaeae radix 22 g, Farfarae folium 22 g, Menthae piperitae herba 10 g, Liquiritiae radix 10 g, Verbasci flos 8 g and Foeniculi fructus 5 g in 100 g of the mixture

Indication: As an adjuvant for treatment of acute and chronic upper respiratory tract catarrhs

Posology: 1 spoon/250 ml of boiling water 3 times daily. On the market since 1969, switched to TU in 2011

Slovakia

Species pectorals Planta

Herbal tea containing Plantaginis folium 23 g (Ribwort plantain leaf), Althaeae radix 22 g (Marshmallow root), Farfarae folium 22 g (Coltsfoot leaf), Menthae piperitae herba 10 g (Peppermint herb), Liquiritiae radix 10 g (Licorice root), Verbasci flos 8 g (Mullein flower), Foeniculi fructus 5 g (Fennel seed) in 100 g of herbal mixture.

Indication: Subsidiary medicine for upper respiratory tract ailments and coughs. It alleviates phlegm, dissolves and eases mucus. The infusion can also be used for gargling.

Posology: Pour 1 cup of boiling water (250 ml) over 1 spoon of herbal mixture and steep in a covered cup for approximately 15 minutes. Do not boil. Can be sweetened with honey. Drink freshly prepared, 3 times daily. On the market since 30.12.1969.

2.1.2. Information on products on the market outside the EU/EEA

Not applicable

2.2. Information on documented medicinal use and historical data from literature

The use of mullein flower has been continuously documented in handbooks, pharmacopoeias and scientific literature. Mullein preparations were used during the Middle Ages for various diseases. According to Madaus (1938), Lonicerus (1564) paid tribute to mullein for its actions as an expectorant, heart- and fever medicine, and as a remedy against warts etc. Traditional medicinal use of mullein flower connected to catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, cough and colds has been documented in handbooks such as Madaus (1938), Hagers Handbuch (Blaschek et al., 2006), Wichtl (2004) and British Herbal Compendium (Bradley, 2006).

Mullein flower is native to Central-, Eastern-, and Southern Europe, Asia Minor, Northern Africa, and Ethiopia. The material of commerce originates primarily from cultivated plants, and is imported from Egypt, Bulgaria, and Russia (Wichtl, 2004). Verbascum thapsus is found throughout Europe and abundantly naturalised in the United States of America (USA). In Europe the tradition has been to use the flowers of V. densiflorum and V. phlomoides; these species are less common in the United Kingdom (UK) and not found in the USA (Bradley, 2006). The Dispensatory of the United States of America (1918), 20th edition by Remington JP and Woods HC, editors, gives an elaborate description of the “the dried corollas, with adhering stamens”, of Verbascum phlomoides L. or of Verbascum thapsiforme Schraed. (Fam. Scrophulariaceae) and states that Mullein Flowers (Verbasci Flores) are official.

Both leaves and flowers of mullein have been used in folk medicine (Youngken, 1943; Grieve, 1974). The dried stems have also been used (Martindale, 2007). Stems were dipped into suet or wax to make torches (Grieve, 1974).

The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BHP) 1983 monograph was on the dried leaves and stems of great mullein. The monograph in BHP 1996 is only for mullein leaf. The root is also mentioned by some references (Grieve, 1974), but the medicinal use of the root does not appear to be described in any of the handbooks. The seeds seem mainly to have to be utilised as piscicide (Wilhelm, 1974). The following traditional uses and posologies have been recorded for mullein flower (see table 2).

Table 2: Overview of historical data

2.3. Overall conclusions on medicinal use

Table 3: Overview of evidence on period of medicinal use

In the first version of the monograph, published in 2008, it was concluded that the traditional use of mullein flower in cough and cold is in particular as a demulcent, and therefore the phrasing of the indication reflect the “the traditional use to relieve symptoms of sore throat associated with dry cough and cold”.

No new references of relevance for the traditional use have been included during the revision. Taking into account the information received from the member states and historical data from literature, the conclusions on indication and posology (including the herbal substance and the dosage frequency, i.e. 3-4 times daily) from the first version of the monograph are retained.

The phytotherapeutic traditional use of mullein flower as a diuretic and diaphoretic is regarded as beneficial pharmacological effects in common cold. However, these effects are not appropriate therapeutic indications. As no complete information about the posology is available, the external use for treating wounds is not included in the monograph.

The traditional medicinal use of mullein flower is considered fulfilled in accordance with the requirement of medicinal use for at least 30 years (15 years within the European Union) in Directive 2004/24/EC.

The following traditional use indication is included in the monograph:

“Traditional herbal medicinal product used to relieve symptoms of sore throat associated with dry cough and cold.

The product is a traditional herbal medicinal product for use in the specified indication exclusively based upon long-standing use.”

The following posology is included in the monograph for the herbal substance and herbal preparation:

Adolescents, adults and elderly

Single dose:

Herbal tea: 1.5-2 g of the herbal substance or comminuted herbal substance in 150 ml boiling water as a herbal infusion three to four times daily.

Daily dose: 4.5-8 g

Duration of use

If the symptoms persist longer than 1 week during the use of the medicinal product, a doctor or a qualified health care practitioner should be consulted.

Method of administration

Oral use

3. Non-Clinical Data

3.1. Overview of available pharmacological data regarding the herbal substance(s), herbal preparation(s) and relevant constituents thereof

3.1.1. Primary pharmacodynamics

Mucociliary flow

The normal transport velocity of the isolated ciliated epithelium of the frog oesophagus was measured. Bromhexin increased this transport rate 1.34 fold and 1.38-fold for the commercial tea combination of coltsfoot, fennel, anise, plantain, liquorice, fenugreek, marshmallow root, and thyme . The different components of the cough tea had different effects on the mucociliar activity. In this in vitro study with the oesophagus epithelium of the frog, a water extract (6.4 g herbal drug / 100 ml) of Verbasci flos did not have any effect on mucociliary transport, whereas preparations from fennel and anis resulted in an increase of mucociliary transport. The study may be criticised because physical effects (increase in viscosity, ion concentration) were not taken into account. The authors stressed that other mechanisms, e.g. for saponins, may be responsible for an expectorant activity (Müller-Limmroth and Fröhlich, 1980).

.

3.1.2. Secondary pharmacodynamics

Antibacterial activity

A study done by Turker and Camper (2002) showed that mullein flower oil(Verbascum thapsus flowers extracted in pure olive oil), had antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. This activity was attributed to the saponins.

Antiviral activity

A lyophilised infusion from V. densiflorum flower exhibited antiviral activity against several influenza A strains, an influenza B strain and fowl plague virus (Zgόrniak-Nowosielska et al., 1991). It also showed virucidal activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1. Influenza viruses titer decreased by 1-3 log units, while that of Herpes simplex virus decreased by 2.3 log. V. densiflorum flower showed virucidal activity on Herpes simplex virus at 300 μg/ml, but did not inactivate influenza viruses. The active substance was not specified in the study (Zgόrniak-Nowosielska et al., 1991).

An earlier study also demonstrated antiviral activity of mullein flower (Verbascum thapsus) decoction, which at a concentration of 1% reduced the titer of A2 type influenza virus by 4.9 log. Mullein flower

also showed suppressive effects on B type influenza virus, reducing the virus titer by 2.5 log (Skwarek, 1979).

Furthermore, an infusion prepared from flowers of V. densiflorum reduced the infectious and haemagglutination yields of a range of influenza viruses in tissue cultures. The combined application of V. densiflorum and three amantadine derivatives (drugs used in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A virus infections) resulted in a marked enhancement of the inhibitory effect of V. densiflorum infusion on the reproduction of influenza virus A/chicken/Germany/27, strain Weybridge (H7N7) in cell cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts (Serkedjieva, 2000).

A study done by Grzybek et al., 1997 showed that an ethyl acetate fraction from a methanolic extract of V. densiflorum flower inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by 39% at a concentration of 200 μg/ml.

Antitumour activity

The mullein flower oil (Verbascum thapsus flowers extracted in pure olive oil) showed antitumour activity (Turker and Camper 2002).

In screening for substances with antitumour activity, aqueous extracts from V. densiflorum flower had a strong inhibitory effect on the elongation step of protein biosynthesis in isolated rat liver microsomes. The saponin fraction was shown to be mainly responsible (Paszkiewicz-Gadek et al., 1990).

Pharmacological activities of isolated constituents

Although relatively few pharmacological studies on mullein preparations have been reported, the pharmacological activities of certain constituents, notably the iridoid aucubin and the phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside (acteoside), have been extensively studied and may explain some of the effects of mullein flower (Bradley, 2006).

Aucubin:

Antiviral activity in vitro

Aucubin was found to suppress hepatitis B virus DNA replication in vitro in a cell culture system. Aucubin itself did not exhibit antiviral activity, but it showed significant activity when preincubated with β-glucosidase. Therefore, this result indicates that aucubin must be converted to its aglycone form to exhibit a significant antiviral activity (Chang, 1997).

Anti-inflammatory activity in vivo

Aucubin administered orally at 100 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema by 29.8% after 1 hour, 33% after 3 hours, and 20.7% after 5 hours (p<0.01), compared to 34.2% inhibition by indometacin at 7 mg/kg after 1 hour, 44.4% after 3 hours and 12.2% after 5 hours. Aucubin administered topically at 1 mg/ear inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear oedema by 80% after 4 hours (p<0.01), compared to 87.1% inhibition by indometacin at 0.5 mg/ear (Recio et al., 1994).

Hepatoprotective activity in vivo

Aucubin administered intravenously at 100 mg/kg significantly protected beagle dogs from lethal poisoning caused by ingestion of Amanita virosa mushrooms. The activity of aucubin was partly due to a preventive effect on the depression of m-RNA biosynthesis in the liver caused by α-amanitin intoxication (Chang and Yamaura, 1993).

It has also been reported that aucubin protected mice from hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride intoxication (Chang et al., 1983).

Verbascoside:

Anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo

In a study by Xiong et al.,1999, verbascoside was found to have nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, which possibly contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. Seven phenylethanoids, including acteoside (verbascoside) at the concentration of 100–200 mM reduced (6.3–62.3%) nitrite accumulation in lipopolysaccharide (0.1 μg/ml) stimulated J774.1 cells. At 200 mM, they inhibited by

32.2–72.4% nitrite accumulation induced by lipopolysaccharide (0.1 μg/ml)/ interferon-γ (100 U/ml) in mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages. Furthermore, verbascoside inhibited formation of the 5- lipoxygenase product 5-HETE and leucotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Verbascoside (acteoside) had strong radical scavenging actions (Kimura et al., 1987).

Verbascoside’s anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the carrageenin-induced paw oedema test in the rat. Verbascoside administered orally at 150 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema by 94% after 3 hours (p<0.02), compared to 40% inhibition by indometacin at 10 mg/kg (p<0.01) (Schapoval et al., 1998).

Furthermore, verbascoside was found to have anti-inflammatory effect against D- galactosamin/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis in mice (Xiong et al., 1999).

A study done by Murai et al., 1995 showed that verbascoside had inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid induced mouse ear oedema. 20 μl of arachidonic acid (100 mg) dissolved in acetone (1 ml) was delivered to both the inner and outer surfaces of each of the right and left ears of mice. Verbascoside inhibited oedema by 6% at 1 mg/ear, and 14% at 3 mg/ear (p<0.05).

Cardiovascular activity in vitro and in vivo

In isolated, perfused rat hearts (Langendorff model) verbacoside (1 mM) increased heart rate by 37%, the force of contraction by 9% and coronary perfusion rate by 68%. Verbascoside significantly increased chronotropism (p=0.010), inotropism (p=0.016) an coronary perfusion rate (p=0.016) when tested against the competitive α-adrenergic blocker phentolamine (1 μM) (Pennacchio et al., 1999).

It has been reported that verbascoside increased perfused rat heart rate (Pennacchio et al., 1999). However, verbascoside (acteoside) administered intravenously to normotensive pentothal anaesthetised rats exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure; the median effective dose of 10 mg/kg reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 39% for 2-3 minutes, while heart rate also decreased (Ahmad and Rizwani, 1995).

Analgesic activity in vivo

Verbascoside (acteoside) exhibited analgesia on acetic acid-induced writhing and on tail pressure pain in mice after oral administration of 300 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Verbascoside also caused weak sedation by prolongation of pentobarbital-induced anesthesia and the depression of locomotion enhanced by metamphetamine (Nakamura et al., 1997).

Antitumour activity in vivo

Verbascoside inhibited proliferation of human gastric adenocarcinoma MGc80-3 cell line by 53.2% (p<0.001) at 20 μmol/l. When the verbascoside-treated cells were inoculated subcutaneously into BALB/C nude mice, the rate of tumour development decreased by 75% compared to that of animals receiving untreated cells. These effects were thought to be related to antioxidant properties of verbascoside (Li et al., 1997).

3.1.3. Safety pharmacology

No information found.

3.1.4. Pharmacodynamic interactions

No information found.

3.1.5. Conclusions

Mullein flower and some of its constituents have been investigated in preclinical studies. Results from relevant experimental studies that support the proposed indications are limited.

None of the reported pharmacological studies constitute any cause for safety concern.

3.2. Overview of available pharmacokinetic data regarding the herbal substance(s)/herbal preparation(s) and constituents thereof

No data are found on pharmacokinetics.

3.3. Overview of available toxicological data regarding the herbal substance(s)/herbal preparation(s) and constituents thereof

3.3.1. Single dose toxicity

No data found.

3.3.2. Repeat dose toxicity

No data found.

3.3.3. Genotoxicity

No data found on genotoxicity for mullein flower.

Verbascoside significantly (p<0.05) reduced cell viability at 0.01-1 mM and mitotic index at 0.005- 0.1 mM in mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes. It induced a significant and concentration related increase of chromosome aberrations, an increase in the percentage of aberrant cells (p<0.01) and in sister chromatid exchanges (Santoro et al., 2008).

3.3.4. Carcinogenicity

No data found.

3.3.5. Reproductive and developmental toxicity

No data found.

3.3.6. Local tolerance

No data found.

3.3.7. Other special studies

No data found.

3.3.8. Conclusions

Non-clinical information on the safety of mullein flower is scarce.

Tests on reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity on mullein flower have not been performed.

3.4. Overall conclusions on non-clinical data

Results from relevant experimental studies on mullein flower to support the proposed indications are very limited. None of the reported pharmacological studies constitute any cause for safety concern.

Specific data on pharmacokinetics and interactions are not found.

Non-clinical information on the safety of mullein flower is scarce.

As there is no information on reproductive and developmental toxicity, the use during pregnancy and lactation cannot be recommended.

Oral administration of mullein flower can be regarded as safe at traditionally used doses.

Tests on reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity have not been performed.

A European Union list entry is not supported due to lack of adequate data on genotoxicity.

4. Clinical Data

4.1. Clinical pharmacology

No data found.

4.1.1. Overview of pharmacodynamic data regarding the herbal substance(s)/preparation(s) including data on relevant constituents

No data found.

4.1.2. Overview of pharmacokinetic data regarding the herbal substance(s)/preparation(s) including data on relevant constituents

No data found.

4.2. Clinical efficacy

No data found.

4.2.1. Dose response studies

No data found.

4.2.2. Clinical studies (case studies and clinical trials)

No data found.

4.3. Clinical studies in special populations (e.g. elderly and children)

No data found.

4.4. Overall conclusions on clinical pharmacology and efficacy

There are no data on clinical pharmacology or efficacy found for mullein flower.

5. Clinical Safety/Pharmacovigilance

5.1. Overview of toxicological/safety data from clinical trials in humans

No data found regarding the herbal substance.

5.2. Patient exposure

Aside from market presence and data from studies, there are no concrete data concerning patient exposure.

No special risks have been identified.

5.3. Adverse events, serious adverse events and deaths

In the VigiLyze database of the World Health Organization’s Uppsala Monitoring Centre for the period up to November 2017, there was one spontaneous report of suspected adverse drug reactions associated with the single-ingredient Verbascum thapsus, mullein and mullein extract (synonym for Verbascum spp.) reporting on hepatitis. Two other spontaneous reports included a combination of several herbs and medicinal products including reactions in other organ systems (allergy, CNS).

Assessor’s comment: There are not sufficient safety data to include any undesirable effects in section 4.8 in the monograph.

5.4. Laboratory findings

No data available.

5.5. Safety in special populations and situations

5.5.1. Use in children and adolescents

No data found.

The oral use of mullein flower is not recommended in children due to the lack of adequate data. There are no studies in adolescents between 12 and 18 years available. The recommended dosage for oral use in adults and adolescents is supported by use in member states.

5.5.2. Contraindications

No data found. However, for safety reasons the use is contraindicated in persons with hypersensitivity to the active substance.

5.5.3. Special Warnings and precautions for use

Patients using the product should consult a doctor or a qualified health care practitioner if dyspnoea, fever or purulent sputum occurs.

5.5.4. Drug interactions and other forms of interaction

No data found.

5.5.5. Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Safety during fertility, pregnancy and lactation has not been established. In the absence of sufficient data, the use during pregnancy and lactation is not recommended.

5.5.6. Overdose

No cases of overdose from mullein flower have been reported.

5.5.7. Ability to drive or operate machinery or impairment of mental ability

No studies on the effect on the ability to drive and use machines have been found.

5.5.8. Safety in other special situations

Not applicable

5.6. Overall conclusions on clinical safety

Mullein flower can be recognised as safe when used in recommended dosages under specified conditions.

6. Overall conclusions (benefit-risk assessment)

No new data of relevance for changes in the content of the monograph were found during the revision.

There are sufficient data available to support a European Union monograph on the traditional use of mullein flower. Traditional use has shown that mullein flower can be recognised as safe when used in recommended dosages under the conditions specified in the monograph.

There are no clinical data available. The criteria required for “well-established medicinal use according to Directive 2001/83/EC is not fulfilled.

No constituent with known therapeutic activity or active marker can be recognized by the HMPC.

Traditional medicinal use of mullein flower has been found to fulfil the requirement of medicinal use for at least 30 years (15 years within the European Union) according to Directive 2004/24/EC for the following indication:

“Traditional herbal medicinal product used to relieve symptoms of sore throat associated with dry cough and cold.

The product is a traditional herbal medicinal product for use in the specified indication exclusively based upon long-standing use.”

Due to the lack of sufficient safety data the use of mullein flower cannot be recommended during pregnancy and lactation.

As no safety data from the use in children are available, the use of mullein flower is not recommended in children under 12 years of age. However, based on the long-standing medicinal use, as well as the absence of reports of serious adverse events, a sufficient degree of safety as necessary for traditional herbal medicinal products can be assumed for adolescents (over 12 years of age).

A European Union list entry is not supported due to lack of adequate data on genotoxicity.

Annex

List of references